2 edition of Biochemical studies of the action of mustard gas and two of its derivatives. found in the catalog.
Biochemical studies of the action of mustard gas and two of its derivatives.
Patrick Sydney John
Written in English
Thesis (PhD) - University of Toronto, 1946.
|The Physical Object|
Effective medical treatment and preventive measures for chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD)-caused incapacitating skin toxicity are lacking, because of limited knowledge of its mechanism of action. The proliferating basal epidermal cells are primary major sites of attack during HD-caused skin injury. D1) and its final action in inducing cell elongation, and while the identification of the auxin receptor was previously regarded as established, this is now regarded as far less certa in.
Environmental Action *Angelov A, Belchev L, Angelov G. a. Study of some toxic effects of sulfur mustard gas on broiler chickens. Vet Archiv Angelov A, Belchev L, Angelov G. b. Experimental sulfur mustard gas poisoning and protective effect of different medicines in rats and rabbits. Indian Vet J *Anslow WP. Introduction. Sulfur mustard, bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (SM), is a bifunctional alkylating agent that has cytotoxic, mutagenic and vesicant properties, and is considered carcinogenic by the IARC ().Sulfur mustard interacts with cellular DNA to form the cross-link, di-(2-guaninyl-ethyl)-sulfide, and two monoadducts, 7-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl) guanine (HETEG) and 3-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl.
Mustard gas is the common name given to 1,1-thiobis(2-chloroethane), a chemical warfare agent that is believed to have first been used near Ypres in Flanders on 12th July Its chemical formula is Cl-CH 2-CH 2-S-CH 2-CH 2-Cl. Its other names include H, yprite, sulfur mustard and Kampstoff Lost, but the name mustard gas became more widely used, because the impure "agent quality" is said to. pool for its variable fatty acid profile to be utilized for specific purposes (Kaushik and Agnihotri, ).In the present study the mustard germplasm was analysed by GLC to study its biochemical characterization and fatty acid composition. The GLC analysis revealed that the mustard crop being commonly grown in.
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Since mustard gas affects a variety of cell functions, including alterations in peptides, proteins, RNA, DNA, and cell membrane compounds (Figs. and ), scientists are trying to figure out the most important reactions following exposure to mustard.
Knowledge of the pathophysiology of different diseases is essential for efficient prevention, accurate diagnosis, and effective treatment; therefore, knowledge of the biochemical mechanism of mustard gas or sulfur mustard is of great importance. This chapter will cover the acute phase of injury in addition to its.
Mustard Gas is a pale yellow, oily, highly toxic, volatile, liquid alkylating compound with a sweet to garlic-like odor that evaporates to a poisonous gas. Mustard gas is a vesicant that was first used in chemical warfare in World War I, but is now only used in small amounts in research studies.
Introduction. Sulfur mustard (SM), or mustard gas (bis[2-chloroethyl] sulfide), is a nonspecific alkylating agent that primarily targets the skin, cornea, and respiratory tissues (see Fig.
1 for structure of SM and several related analogs that have been used to investigate its mechanism of action). Although responses to SM are tissue specific and dependent on dose, inflammation is an early Cited by: Sulfur Mustard. Sulfur mustard (C 4 H 8 Cl 2 S) is one of a class of chemical warfare agen ts known as vesicants because of their ability to form vesicles, or blisters, on exposed skin (see Figure ).During WWI, exposed troops described the odor of this agent as a stench like mustard or garlic, hence its Cited by: 2.
The most widely reported chemical agent of the First World War was sulfur mustard, known as "mustard gas".It is a volatile oily liquid. It was introduced as a vesicant by Germany in July prior to the Third Battle of Ypres.
The Germans marked their shells yellow for mustard gas and green for chlorine and phosgene; hence they called the new gas Yellow Cross. The azo-mustard 4-di-2″-chloroethylaminoazobenzene-2′-carboxylic acid was found to be mutagenic in Drosophila melanogaster males.
The mutagenic effect was found only in pre-meiotic germ cell stages and, of these, late spermatids were the most sensitive. Sterility or. Mustard gas, or sulfur mustard (Cl-CH 2 CH 2) 2 S, is a chemical agent that causes severe burning of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract.
It can. It was our first experience of mustard gas. The men we took were covered in blisters. The size of your palm most of them. In any tender, warm place, under the arms, between the legs, and over the face and neck.
All their eyes were streaming, and hurting in a way that sin never hurts. (4) In Guy Chapman was badly affected by a mustard-gas.
Castor oil has numerous industrial and medicinal applications, and its demand is increasing by 3%–5% per annum. The demand for castor oil derivatives is growing as they are biodegradable, cheap, and readily available. India needs to maintain its position in the global market by fulfilling the demand of castor seeds and oil.
But the story of mustard gas didn’t end there. And it has a brighter ending than you might think. “In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity”- Einstein. Two decades later, with World War II looming, researchers on the side of the Allied Forces feared a repeat of the mustard gas attacks of the Great War.
So they tried to create antidotes. Most of the mustard derivatives used to treat patients were developed from the late s through the s by replacing the sulfur in the mustard gas formula with nitrogen.
Boursnell JC, Francis GE, Wormall A. Studies on mustard gas (betabeta'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide) and some related compounds: 2. The action of mustard gas, betabeta'-dichlorodiethyl sulphone and divinyl sulphone on amino-acids.
Biochem J. ; 40 ()– [PMC free article]. A very interesting action against poisoning by diquat and paraquat is the addition of an emetic agent in their formulations, wherein the additive acts rapidly in the body and causes the individual to regurgitate the pesticide before it performs its toxic action [38 - 40].
The main poisoning symptoms are dehydration resulting from vomiting. Sarin (NATO designation GB [short for G-series, "B"]) is an extremely toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound.
A colourless, odourless liquid, it is used as a chemical weapon due to its extreme potency as a nerve re is lethal even at very low concentrations, where death can occur within one-to-ten minutes after direct inhalation of a lethal dose, due to suffocation from lung.
Nitrogen mustard HN-2 is chlormethine (Mechlorethamine) and has been used for treatment of multiple cancer diseases such as Hodgkin’s disease. Sulfur mustard has the chemical name bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide and the IUPAC name 1-chloro(2-chloroethylsulfanyl) ethane. It is also known as mustard, mustard gas, HD or Yperite.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare, biological warfare and radiological warfare, which together make up CBRN, the military acronym for nuclear, biological, and chemical (warfare or weapons), all of which are considered "weapons of mass destruction" (WMDs).
During World War II, naval personnel who were exposed to mustard gas during military action were found to have toxic changes in the bone marrow cells that develop into blood cells. During that same period, the US Army was studying a number of chemicals related to mustard gas to develop more effective agents for war and also develop protective.
odourless only in its pure form and in ordinary field concentrations, but most of the samples in high concentrations have characteristic odour resembling that of horse radish or oil of mustard, hence the name mustard gas.
Compared with properties of an ideal CW agent, mustard gas meets the requirements like high toxicity, extreme multiple. Explore the latest full-text research PDFs, articles, conference papers, preprints and more on BIOCHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY. Find methods information, sources, references or.
Mustard gas, though technically not a gas and often called sulfur mustard by scholarly sources, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents, which can form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
They have a long history of use as a blister-agent in warfare and, along with organoarsenic compounds such as Lewisite, are the. Exposures were either in war situations or to workers in a mustard gas manufacturing plant during wartime production.
The duration of exposure for these workers was years. j From “The effect of repeated applications of minute quantities of mustard gas on the skin of mice,” (Fell, H.
and M. Allsopp), Cancer Res. 8, –, k.Other articles where Mustard gas is discussed: chemical weapon: Blister agents: sulfur mustard, popularly known as mustard gas. Casualties were inflicted when personnel were attacked and exposed to blister agents like sulfur mustard or lewisite.
Delivered in liquid or vapour form, such weapons burn the skin, eyes, windpipe, and lungs. The physical results, depending on level of exposure.